One of the most common pregnancy symptoms is tenderness in the breasts. From the very beginning of your pregnancy, your breasts begin to change in order to prepare for the arrival of the baby. All these changes are normal, so there is no reason to be alarmed unless you are experiencing something extraordinary, such as bleeding from your nipples. If that’s the case, you should seek medical attention. As for the other changes, don’t panic; they are part of the natural process every woman goes through once conception has happened. Lets examine what changes are occurring and why.
Increase in size: When you become pregnant, your breasts begin to increase in size due to the milk glands growing and preparing to make milk for the baby. This increase in size can be substantial—you may gain two cup sizes or more—and it can make your breasts feel tender and unnaturally heavy. Also, as your breasts increase in size, you’ll notice that veins are beginning to show. Again, this is normal.
Stretch Marks: As your breasts grow, your skin must naturally stretch in order to accommodate this growth. This may cause itching, and you may eventually see striae, also known as stretch marks. These marks are apt to appear on your growing belly and breasts. Our skin comprises three layers— the subcutis (the inner layer), the dermis (the middle layer), and the epidermis (the outer later); stretch marks appear in the dermis. Approximately 80 percent of women get stretch marks during pregnancy, and the severity of these marks (and whether you get them at all) depends on the elasticity of your skin in particular. Unfortunately, while there are many over-the-counter creams and oils available that purport to prevent stretch marks, there is no evidence that any of them really help. Some people recommend cocoa butter as a preventative measure, but there is no evidence that this works either. The good news is that striae often fade away on their own, given sufficient time. If you get stretch marks and they do not fade away within a year or so, there are procedures such as laser therapy and microdermabrasion that may help.
Nipples: Your nipples will also increase in size and become more prominent, and in the later stages of pregnancy you may experience leakage of a substance called colostrum. Colostrum can leave a crusty substance on your nipples. This too is normal. Colostrum is usually clear and viscous, with a yellowish tint. If the colostrum is red or reddish, it means blood is present. Occasional blood leakage from the nipple is not necessarily a cause for concern—it is usually due to the sudden growth of the blood vessels, which is normal—but you should contact your doctor nevertheless, just to make sure that the blood leakage is not a symptom of a medical problem. If there is any discharge from your nipple that does not appear to be colostrum, contact your doctor immediately.
Areolas: Your areolas will grow larger and become slightly darker in color. The darker color helps the baby to distinguish nipple from skin, making is much easier to latch on. You may also notice small bumps on the surface of your areolas. These bumps are called Montgomery’s tubercles. These are harmless, and the oil they produce actually provides an antibacterial shield and keeps the nipples from drying out and cracking. You should only rinse them with water and not soap, to ensure that you don’t wash away your body’s natural defense against germs.
Bras: As noted above, the sudden increase in size that accompanies pregnancy can cause you to gain a cup size or two, or possibly even more. For the sake of your own comfort, you will need to change the type of brassiere you wear. Some people will tell you to avoid underwire bras because the wiring can somehow interfere with the function of the milk ducts, but there is no evidence to support this belief. There is no reason not to wear an underwire bra, provided it fits well and the wires don’t dig into your flesh. Most women find maternity bras to more comfortable, however; the advantage of maternity bras is that they include extra rows of hooks, making it possible for you to adjust the bra as your breasts get larger. It may also be a good idea to put pads in your bra in order to absorb any colostrum or milk that may leak out during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
If you plan to breastfeed your baby, you may want to consider being fitted for a nursing bra. Nursing bras are equipped with cups that unzip or unhook, which makes breastfeeding more convenient. The best time for such a fitting is a month or two prior to your due date; by this time your breasts will have grown as large as they are going to.
Talking to Your Doctor
Remember, these changes will not happen overnight, but only gradually as your pregnancy progresses. Many women experience breast tenderness as their menstrual cycle approaches; this does not mean you are pregnant. Only a pregnancy test will conclusively determine whether you are pregnant. Here are some questions you may want to ask your doctor:
- Is there anything that can be done to prevent stretch marks, or to get rid of them after I am done with childbirth and breastfeeding?
- Is the leakage from my breasts anything to be concerned about, or is it just colostrum?
- Is there anything that can be done about the soreness and tenderness in my breasts?